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Learn what the experts are saying at industry conferences about a wide range of natural water management issues.

Wetland Restoration Design
August 2, 2019

Lee Clarke and Rebecca Haw designed this poster for the Constructed Wetlands Conference to show the use of a 1D hydraulic drainage model to design a 500-hectare wetland.

This large-scale environmental wetland system comprises multiple linked cells, providing varied habitats and water treatment areas. The hydraulic interaction between the cells is important and complex – it is vital that this interaction between the cells is explained to all stakeholders.

Finding Fertile Fields for the Future - The Soil Water Nexus
June 4, 2019

Soils are a key resource to the agricultural production system, yet 33% of arable top soil has been lost globally in the last 40 years. In England and Wales at current rates of usage it is estimated that we have just 100 harvests left.

It is essential that we understand our soils so that we can use and manage them in a productive and sustainable way. To catalyze debate and identify potential solutions CHAP held a ‘Soils Forum’ to bring together a range of interested stakeholders – academia, practitioners and innovators – to showcase current cutting-edge technologies and practical field solutions; stimulate new thinking; facilitate collaboration; turn theory into action.

National water management expert, James Dodds, was invited as a ‘passionate practitioner’ to talk about his practical experience of soil management – what works and what doesn’t.

Sand and Gravel Aquifers - The Importance of Knowing What You've Got!
May 7, 2019

Senior Hydrogeologists, Deborah Thomas and Penny Jenkinson were pleased to share their expertise at The Geological Society of London’s Hydrogeology of the Superficial Deposits Conference.

Deborah and Penny presented case studies on a range of mineral extraction and water abstraction developments, showing how the type of deposit influences the siting and design of abstraction and monitoring boreholes.

A Pragmatic Approach to Evaluating the Impact of Woodland Creation on Slowing the Flow
May 7, 2019

Rebecca Haw and Michael Underwood, Hydrologists in our dedicated surface water team were pleased to share their knowledge in Natural Flood Management (NFM) at the Annual River Restoration Conference this week.

Rebecca’s poster discussed “A pragmatic approach to evaluating the impact of woodland creation on slowing the flow”:

Practical applications of woodland creation for slowing the flow is limited partially due to the lack of evidence supporting the potential benefits. As with many NFM options, such as leaky dams, assessing woodland creation’s impact on flood risk across a range of storm magnitudes is challenging in the field. As such how can alternative methods be used to aid NFM design on a catchment scale? A useful alternative to field-based research was identified as hydraulic models. This approach facilitated the assessment of different scale and spatial woodland creation across impact on a flood hydrograph across a range of storm magnitudes. Model results support the use of this method in flood mitigation. This research provides a pragmatic approach to designing and predicting the location of woodland creation within a catchment to maximise the benefit of reducing flood risk. This assessment method can be used as a design tool for designing catchment scale NFM schemes.

Michaels poster on “The application of 2D hydrodynamic modelling for assessing the effectiveness of NFM at a catchment scale” can be viewed below.

Using 2D Modelling to Assess the Effectiveness of NFM Under Different Rainfall Event Magnitudes at a Catchment Scale
May 7, 2019

Michael Underwood, Hydrologist at Envireau Water was pleased to present a poster at the British Hydrological Society National Meeting on Natural Flood Risk Management (NFM) at Lancaster University.

Evidence for the effectiveness of NFM measures under different rainfall event magnitudes, at the catchment scale, is limited. This due to (1) the scientific uncertainty about the cumulative impacts of NFM measures within catchments, and (2) the relative immaturity of numerical modelling tools for making predictions about the effectiveness of NFM measures. Recent innovations in 2D surface water modelling and the increased availability of high-resolution topographical datasets have unlocked the potential to quantify the cumulative impacts of many small NFM measures distributed across catchments of varying scales. Michael’s poster quantifies the effectiveness of four types NFM measures at reducing downstream peak discharge for rainfall events of different magnitude at the small catchment.

Envireau Water offers comprehensive NFM and river geomorphology services. The technical aspects of NFM and river geomorphology brings together the skills deeply embedded in our expert team, from surface water hydraulics, superficial geology, alluvial sediment transport, mapping and surveying. If we can support you with a project, contact us on 01332 871 882 or

Water Resources Management and Regulation
May 1, 2019

Envireau Water’s Chairperson, James Dodds, was invited to speak to the team at Burges Salmon about water resources management, regulation and expert witness services.

James’ presentation was split into the 3 sections. Firstly he explored the importance of the water balance in the water cycle and highlighted that in order to maintain the balance, information is needed for decisions to be made, priorities to be set, and variables to be taken account. He deduced that quantity and timing are the 2 fundamental issues in managing water resources.

The second part of his presentation looked at what is happening in the water resources management and regulation arena in the UK in 2019 – notably, the risk of drought for private water supplies and agriculture, and New Authorisations.

Finally, James discussed the role and importance of expert witnesses. Here at Envireau Water, we provide expert witness services in all of our core areas of expertise. Learn more here.

Water - Our Raw Material. How Do We Access It?
March 20, 2019

Chairperson, James Dodds, was invited to speak at Netafim’s UK Annual Product Showcase and Training Meeting. Netafim is a manufacturer of irrigation equipment, and recognising that irrigation equipment is worthless without access to water, James was called upon to discuss water availability and trickle irrigation licensing.

Practical Licensing Issues: In a World of Increasing Uncertainty
February 15, 2019

Nationally recognised expert in water management and water resources hydrogeology, James Dodds, spoke at a NFU Water Resources update event in Lincolnshire this month.

The importance of irrigation to the farm business was made very apparent during the 2018 summer heatwave, so this timely update came as water management has taken an ever increasing centre stage, with abstraction reform still on the cards, the licensing of trickle irrigators upon us and a need to keep an eye on 2019 prospects.

From the 1st of January 2018 it has been a requirement that abstraction of water for trickle irrigation requires an abstraction licence. James’ presentation focused on the New Authorisations process, giving practical advice and information on getting the application right. The key message is that trickle licensing is upon us NOW and time is running out fast!

Practical Solutions to Water Shortages
November 30, 2018

James Dodds, Water Management Specialist at Envireau Water was pleased to present alongside Andy Turner, Water Resources Manager from the Environment Agency and Paul Hammett, NFU National Water Resources Specialist, at an area NFU meeting in Lichfield this month.

Following the exceptional summer of 2018 where the irrigation of crops became a major problem, the presentations looked at ways in which agricultural abstractors can cope with drought. James spoke about practical measures that abstractors can think about to help manage and mitigate drought impacts.

Private Water Supplies Risk Assessment
November 29, 2018

James Dodds delivered a presentation on private water supplies risk assessments to the Derbyshire Dales District Council Private Water Supplies Group annual meeting. Local authority officers from Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire who routinely deal with supplies under the Private Water Supplies Regulations were introduced to ‘borehole basics’ – different types of boreholes; what they look like; and how they work. James then went on to discuss borehole risk assessments, including the 4 s’ in assessment – environmental setting; potential for surface water ingress; whether there is a sanitary seal; and common sense.

Removal of the Dewatering Exemptions - The Welsh Perspective
November 19, 2018

James Dodds, Chairperson of Envireau Water, was invited to speak at the Mineral Products Association (MPA) Wales Planning Meeting on Quarry Dewatering New Authorisations.

As a nationally recognised expert in water management, James updated members on the impact of the removal of the dewatering exemptions for those operating in Wales, covering Transitional Arrangements, the application process and key regulator messages.

Regulatory Issues Surrounding PET and Food Contact Materials
November 9, 2018

Tony Lord from Smithers Rapra and Smithers Pira Ltd presented an outline of the regulatory issues around Food Contact Materials (FCM), non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) and using rPET at the 2018 Borehole Users Conference.

Interested In Exporting Your Bottled Water Brand To The US?
November 9, 2018

Helen Kelleher of Zenith Global informed the 2018 Borehole Users Conference that there is a strict set of compliance rules at US federal and individual state level that you must adhere to when you apply for a licence to export bottled water. She further elaborated on what it involves, whether your source, bottling facilities and brand may be suitable and the technical aspects of an application.

How Will Exiting The EU Affect Natural Mineral Waters Recognition?
November 9, 2018

Miguel Arranz of Defra, provided a general update of the issues affecting recognition once the UK leaves the EU at the 2018 Borehole Users Conference, both in terms of what is being negotiated for a future economic partnership and also what the future would like in the unlikely event of the UK leaving the EU without a negotiated outcome.

What Does Bottled Water Regulation In The UK Look Like?
November 9, 2018

Julia Carter from AG Barr, presented an overview of the effect of UK Bottled water regulations being a devolved issue and a summary of the impact on bottled waters of the new EU Drinking Water Directive proposal, at the 2018 Borehole Users Conference.

Distilling & Water
November 9, 2018

Edward Gibson a Master Distiller at Burleighs Gin, acknowledged a rise in small distilleries and spoke in depth at the 2018 Borehole Users Conference about the distilling process, how it differs from brewing and what Environmental Health Officers (EHO) need to worry about.

Brewing & Water
November 9, 2018

At the 2018 Borehole Users Conference, Alan Dunn the former head brewer at Black Sheep Brewery answered the question, are breweries subject to the PWS regulations and if so, why? He elaborated on the brewing cycle and how raw water is modified by the brewing process. Alan then stated the important chemical and microbiological constituents that Environmental Health Officers (EHO) should be monitoring in raw water from a human health perspective.

Private Water Supplies Regulations: The Local Authority Perspective
November 9, 2018

At the 2018 Borehole Users Conference, Gillian Plaice from Northumberland County Council provided a real life overview of what the new regulations mean in practical terms, how the people on the ground are interpreting and implementing the regulations, and the pitfalls to avoid.

Private Water Supplies
November 9, 2018

Richard Phillips an Inspector at the Drinking Water Inspectorate informed the 2018 Borehole Users Conference on the key changes introduced through the 2018 amendment to the PWS regulations, the implications for PWS owners and operators, and what guidance and assistance the DWI is providing to the regulating authorities to ensure effective implementation.

Construction Materials
November 9, 2018

David Ball represented Boode UK at the 2018 Borehole Users Conference where he discussed the importance of regulation and quality standards for borehole construction materials and emphasised how it is imperative that the quality of materials do not undermine the success of the work. David successfully illustrated how quality alone does not guarantee a successful outcome and stressed how it is important to go beyond certification and understand the properties of the materials and conditions underground, in order to use materials in an appropriate manner. Finally, he elaborated on the role of the hydrogeologist on site, working in partnership with the driller, to amend the design of a water supply borehole in the light of the findings as they arise to create a ‘water well’.

It’s Different Up North — How And Why?
November 9, 2018

Marco Baglioni from SEPA, presented the differences within the abstraction licensing system in Scotland and England at the 2018 Borehole Users Conference. Marco provided insight into SEPA’s approach to groundwater abstraction authorisation at various levels and the technical steps that SEPA undertakes to review a groundwater abstraction application against the Water Framework Directives in general and the impact on water receptors in particular. SEPA’s risk-based approach to licensing and the differences between simple ‘registrations’ under the General Binding Rules to applications for ‘complex licences’ was also discussed.

How Is Your Licence Application Determined In England?
November 9, 2018

Estelle Nma and Andrew Apanasionok from the Environment Agency spoke at the 2018 Borehole Users Conference about the complications related to abstraction licensing, as the ability to obtain a licence depends on a number of factors. Andrew and Estelle discussed the standard process for obtaining a licence and the types of technical and regulatory issues that may need to be addressed along the way. The presentation also covered the differences between in perpetuity and time limited licences, and how they may change in the future. Andrew and Estelle also elaborated on the recent changes to ‘licence exempt areas’ and what that means to existing abstractors applying for a licence for the first time.

20 Years Of Securing Licences - Where Others Fear To Tread
November 9, 2018

At the 2018 Borehole Users Conference James Dodds, Chairperson of Envireau Water discussed his experiences in abstraction licensing, with insights on some difficult successes; trading and new authorisations.  James has a reputation within the industry that “If he can’t get you a licence, nobody can”. In this presentation, he covers where that came from and what it means.

Removal of the Dewatering Exemptions - Where Are We Now?
October 26, 2018

Nationally recognised expert in water management, James Dodds, delivered an Institute of Quarrying (IQ) webinar during which he reviewed the transitional arrangements and new requirements for abstraction licensing which came into effect on 1st January 2018. During his presentation he examined what has been learned so far this year, and focused on what needs to be done NOW to ensure deadlines are hit.

Watch the webinar below:

Please note edit to presentation: Sam Cutler ( is the lead officer in the EA NPS team, along with Kate Johnson ( – both who are available to answer any queries prior to submitting an application.

The Importance of Appropriate Water Monitoring in Sand and Gravel Quarries
July 27, 2018

Our Senior Hydrologist, Deborah Thomas, was invited to speak at The Geological Society Contaminated Land and Groundwater Conference.

With 2018 being themed as the “Year of Resources”, this conference explored the role of the contaminated land specialist in management of risk to, and sustainable use of, our increasingly valuable land and groundwater resources.

In Deborah’s presentation, she discussed the importance of appropriate water monitoring in sand and gravel quarries. Due to their geological and geographical locations, sand and gravel quarries often have a complex relationship with their hydrogeological surroundings. In terms of site wide water monitoring, typically 10 suitably located and adequately monitored boreholes provide better hydrogeological and hydrological information than 30 poorly located monitoring points. Therefore, within quarries, adequate monitoring strategies are required to ensure productivity is maintained, whilst providing appropriate protection to the surrounding environment.

Removal of the Dewatering Exemptions
February 1, 2018

As the UK’s leading independent abstraction licensing and water management specialists, Envireau Water is heavily involved with supporting organisations in the quarrying industry to navigate the updated abstraction licensing regulations.

In January, nationally recognised expert in water management, James Dodds, delivered the first Institute of Quarrying (IQ) ‘lunch and learn’ webinar examining the transitional arrangements and new requirements for abstraction licensing.

During the bitesize session James covers:

  • The history
  • Regulations
  • Licence types
  • Transition arrangements & new activities
  • The application process
  • Evidence

Watch the webinar below:

The 5 W's of Hydrogeology
November 8, 2017

Our Senior Hydrogeologist, Deborah Thomas, attended the 2017 Geological Society Career & Industry Day to speak to students about what a career in Hydrogeology entails.

The Geological Society Career & Industry Day is an essential meeting place for geoscience students and the geoscience industry, and is the most recognised geoscience careers focused forum in the country.

Abstractor Case Study - Elveden Estate
October 9, 2017

At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference, Andrew Francis, a Senior Farm Manager at Elveden Estate told us about his experience of understanding data and how the organisation has benefitted from it.

Abstractor Case Study - Yorkshire Water
October 9, 2017

At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference, Mark Morton, a Senior Hydrogeologist at Yorkshire Water told us about his experience of understanding data and how the organisation has benefitted from it.

Abstractor Case Study - Montgomery Waters
October 9, 2017

At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference, Joe Watson, a Bottled Water Consultant for Montgomery Waters told us about his experience of understanding data and how the organisation has benefitted from it.

Water Flow Metering - What are the Options?
October 9, 2017

Knowing how much water you are abstracting and at what rate is critical in ensuring a sustainable supply, whether it is to provide data to the regulator; protect the environment; manage your abstraction system; or monitor and improve water use efficiency.

However, there are a wide range of water metering and flow measurement methods and options, each with advantages and disadvantages ranging from simple manually read in line cumulative flow meters, to sophisticated digital logging and recording meters.

At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference, Danny Ronson, Siemens, presented and discussed the range of metering and measurement solutions available, when and where they are applicable, as well as maintenance, verification and calibration issues.

Water Level Monitoring - Method in the Madness
October 9, 2017

If we are to understand how our borehole is performing, we need data to do it. A key piece of data is water level. Measurement of borehole water levels would seem simple, but Peter Dumble has been teaching people how to take measurements for decades and he remains astounded by the misconceptions that still exist. At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference, Peter discussed measurement method, tools and techniques.

It's All About the Data
October 9, 2017

Test pumping is not only important from a regulatory point of view, but invaluable from an everyday operational, monitoring and control viewpoint. “Every time you switch your pump on, you are doing a test”, Phil Ham, Envireau Water, has been heard saying. At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference, Phil explained how and why you use everyday data to understand what your well or borehole is doing.

Test Pumping - Why and How
October 9, 2017

Test pumping is an important part of the work required by the Environment Agency to support an abstraction licence. At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference, Diane Steele presented why the Environment Agency need test pumping data, the sort of data that they need and what they do with it. She placed this in the context of ensuring sustainable abstraction, protection of the environment and other abstractors—which could be you!

Borehole Design - Getting it Right
October 9, 2017

Dave Banks is the co-author of the seminal UK borehole design handbook “Waterwells & Boreholes”, a prolific scientific author, actor and musician. At the 2017 Borehole Users Conference he discussed the importance of good borehole design, the technical and scientific methods that can be used, and the benefits that good design brings to sustainable abstraction.

Addressing Environmental Issues in Cities - Water Management
July 11, 2017

Managing Director and Water Management Expert, James Dodds, spoke at the 2017 UK Environmental Law Association (UKELA) Annual Conference about one of the most serious environmental issues facing modern cities – water management.

UKELA is the UK forum which aims to make the law work for a better environment and to improve understanding and awareness of environmental law.

Design of Schemes of Water Monitoring
March 2, 2017

James Dodds, Water Management Specialist and Managing Director of Envireau Water, was invited to speak at the highly interesting 2017 UKIA Spring Conference.

James discussed the importance of data gathering and analysis to support evidence-based water planning and conflict resolution.

Taint and Contaminant Problems - Causes and Prevention
November 20, 2016

The British Soft Drinks Association hosted a sell-out Bottled Waters Technical Workshop in parallel to the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

Cheryl Walker from Britvic Soft Drinks focused on Taint and Contaminant Problems – Causes and Prevention.

Sampling and Testing Regimes For Bottled Waters
November 8, 2016

The British Soft Drinks Association hosted a sell-out Bottled Waters Technical Workshop in parallel to the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

Josep Molas Page from The Coca-Cola Company focused on Sampling and Testing Regimes For Bottled Waters.

Packaging Concerns
November 8, 2016

The British Soft Drinks Association hosted a sell-out Bottled Waters Technical Workshop in parallel to the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

David Syrett from David Syrett Packaging Consultancy focused on Packaging Concerns.

Microbiological Challenges
November 8, 2016

The British Soft Drinks Association hosted a sell-out Bottled Waters Technical Workshop in parallel to the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

Dr Philip Adhurst from Dr P R Ashurst and Associates focused on Microbiological Challenges.

November 8, 2016

John Calder, Technical Director, Dura Pump Ltd delivered this presentation at the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

John Calder from Dura Pump talks about “power”. This presentation covers topics such as the basics of power requirements for pumps; starting pumps and the different power requirements; controls from simple on/off to complex logic based systems; energy efficiency and the use of invertors.

November 8, 2016

Mark Webb, Area Sales Manager, Grundfos UK delivered this presentation at the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

Mark Webb from Grundfos UK talks about the ins and outs of submersible pumps. He answers questions such as: How do pumps work? How are they controlled? Why do pumps fail? Which pump is the right pump? What’s a set point? What’s NPSH and why does it matter? As well as common errors and misconceptions in pump selection and installation.

Why It Matters To Independent Abstractors
November 8, 2016

Dr Phil Ham, Principal Hydrogeologist/Director, Envireau Water delivered this presentation at the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

Envireau Water’s Dr Phil Ham returned to the conference, by popular demand, to put what was learnt from the previous two speakers into the perspective of the independent water abstractor. Whether they are mineral water bottlers or manufacturers, farmers or brewers, knowing where the water comes from, how it might be at risk from themselves and others, and how it can be protected is an important part of looking after and understanding the important asset that is their borehole.

Defining Catchments – How To Do It
November 8, 2016

James Dodds, Managing Director of Envireau Water delivered this presentation of behalf of Alastair Black from Groundwater Science Ltd at the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

This presentation looks at how catchments are defined in practice. Simple methods (as simple as a pair of compasses) are covered as well as methods used by water companies and the Environment Agency using complex regional computer models.

Download the presentation or alternatively, Alastair Black recorded himself delivering his presentation which is available in dropbox here.

Public Water Supplies - Managing Boreholes, Managing Catchments
November 8, 2016

Mike Packman, Chief Hydrogeologist at Southern Water delivered this presentation at the 2016 Borehole Users Conference.

Public water supplies represent about 80% of groundwater abstraction in England and Wales. That’s a lot of water. Understanding where the water comes from that supplies any particular borehole is critical to water companies in order that they can satisfy themselves that their abstractions are sustainable both in terms of quantity and quality. Mike Packman is a hydrogeologist with over 40 years’ experience in managing boreholes in the public water supply sector. He provides insight on the issues important to the public supply sector and how these impact on borehole design and operation.

Water for Breweries
May 17, 2016

Dr Phil Ham, Director and Principal Hydrogeologist of Envireau Water, attended a fantastic event at multi-award winning Salopian Brewery, Shrewsbury on the 4th May.

Organised by the Institute of Brewing and Distilling UK Midland Section, over 30 brewers and others in the brewing supply chain gathered for an evening entailing networking, a tour of the Salopian Brewing Company’s new 80hL brewery, a presentation from Dr Ham, and of course, a taste of beer. Phil’s presentation took a basic look at understanding boreholes, the benefits of groundwater for brewers, along with the common problems with boreholes.

Borehole Sources - Drinking Water Quality Regulation
November 5, 2015

Rupert Dixon from the Drinking Water Inspectorate closed our Borehole Users Conference with an presentation which included an explanation of the role of the DWI, the regulatory framework for water quality and the regulations surrounding borehole construction and water quality.

Download the presentation by clicking the icon on the right hand side.

French Standardisation of Boreholes
November 8, 2015

We were very fortunate to be able to welcome two representatives from AFNOR to our Borehole Users Conference to talk to us about their experiences in creating a water well standard in France. Claire Chague and Benjamin Laurent gave us a fascinating insight into the process they went through and the stakeholder involvement.

Benefitting Through Borehole Design
November 8, 2015

Phil Ham, closed the morning session of our Borehole Users Conference with a talk covering types of boreholes, design fundamentals and construction standards. He also outlined common water quality problems and possible solutions using a range of practical examples.

The Role of the Environmental Laboratory
November 8, 2015

Nick Barsby of ALS Environmental Ltd, outlined the role of the laboratory at our Borehole Users Conference. He explained how sampling is a crucial element in risk management and explained the stages involved in chemical analysis. He also outlined how you can work with the lab to ensure the most accurate results.

Water Quality & Chemistry
November 8, 2015

Dave Banks of Holymoor Consultancy Ltd opened our Borehole Users Conference with a fascinating presentation on Water Quality and Chemistry. His presentation dealt with the characteristics of water in relation to its suitability for a proposed use with an emphasis on inorganic water chemistry. His presentation was very well received and generated some great questions from the floor.

Deep System Hydrogeology
March 9, 2015

Phil Ham presented his views on Deep System Hydrogeology at Shale UK 2015. The key concepts discussed were deep hydrogeology versus shallow hydrogeology; the terminology used; hydrostratigraphic layers including conceptual models and the issues associated with deep system hydrogeology.

The Whirligig of Hydrogeological Time
October 9, 2014

James Dodds presented at the East Midlands Group of the Geological Society on the evening of 8 October. He gave a talk titled “The Whirligig of Hydrogeological Time” which discussed his thoughts about the cycles that he has experienced in hydrogeological science and what that may mean for the future. The presentation was well received and many interesting questions were posed following the talk.

Water Footprinting
September 2, 2014

Envireau Water’s Ella Pendleton presented a poster at the IBD’s Worldwide Distilled Spirits Conference in September. The poster explores the fact that the concept of using water footprinting to understand global freshwater usage and sustainability has been gaining momentum over the last decade. Interest in water footprinting has been renewed recently by the publication of the first International Standard for water footprinting.

Ella’s presentation gives an overview of developing a Water Availability Footprint and how to use the results as a tool to manage water related risks.

Beer & Hydrogeology
June 18, 2014

Envireau Water gave a presentation on sourcing, composition and security of water supply at a seminar hosted by the Institute of Brewing & Distilling entitled:“How does the Brewhouse cope with changing raw materials?” The event took place on April 18 at the Black Sheep Brewery in Masham.

Decommissioning Wells and Boreholes
June 4, 2014

Envireau Water’s Alastair Rose has created the attached poster looking at the importance of decommissioning wells and boreholes.

The poster discusses the fact that boreholes and wells inevitably become redundant when brownfield sites, once used for industrial or commercial purposes, are redeveloped or when domestic properties have mains water connected.